Aircraft Icing Handbook

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At the blade root there may also be a degree of run-back which, in itself, is not important as little lift is produced in this area. Figure 3 – Blade Ice Coverage at Temperatures Just Below Freezing Point Ice Formation at Temperatures Between -3°C and -15°C It has been shown that at -3°C about 70% of the leading edge span will be covered by ice. As the temperature decreases, ice is deposited farther along the blade until 100% coverage from root to tip takes place (see Figure 4) the lower temperature having overcome the kinetic heating.

Statistics continue to show an average of 10 occurrences, including 7 accidents, per year, which were probably caused by engine induction icing. After a Forced landing or accident the ice may well have disappeared before an opportunity occurs to examine the engine, so that the cause cannot be identified positively. Some aircraft and engine combinations are more prone to icing than others and this should be borne in mind when flying various aircraft types. 2 Induction System Icing There are three main types of induction system icing: (a) Carburettor Icing: The most common type of induction system icing is carburettor icing which is caused by the sudden temperature drop due to fuel vaporisation and reduction in pressure at the carburettor venturi.

14 June 2000 45 Chapter Four Version 1 Aircraft Icing Handbook (b) Hold over time tables: The tables on page s14/15 provide an indication of the time frame of protection that could reasonably be expected under conditions of precipitation. However, due to the many variables that can influence hold-over times, these times should not be considered as finite. The actual time of protection may be extended or reduced, depending upon the particular conditions existing at the time. 10 Flight Crew Techniques The purpose of this section is to deal with the issue of ground de- icing/anti- icing from the Flight crew’s perspective.

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