By Ted O'Hare
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Additional info for Amphibians
Indd 29 12/15/09 4:58:56 PM 30 Shore Fishes of Hawai‘i ancHovies (engraulidae) The anchovies share the primitive characters listed above for the clupeid fishes such as a single dorsal fin, no spines in fins, etc. They are readily distinguished by their rounded overhanging snout and slender lower jaw. Anchovies occur in dense schools; they feed by swimming open-mouth through concentrations of planktonic organisms which are strained on their numerous slender gill rakers. Only two species are known from Hawaiian waters, the common Hawaiian Anchovy and the Buccaneer Anchovy (Encrasicholina punctifer); the latter is wide-ranging and usually found offshore.
Attains 11 inches (28 cm). Indo-Pacific; usually on sand or silty sand near protected reefs. indd 31 12/15/09 4:58:58 PM 32 Shore Fishes of Hawai‘i NEBULOUS LIZARDFISH ‘ulae Saurida nebulosa Valenciennes, 1850 Color very similar to that of S. gracilis; lateral-line scales 50–52; best distinguished by shorter pectoral fins (the tips 4–6 scale rows from origin of dorsal fin; 2–3 rows for S. gracilis). Largest, 8 inches (20 cm). Indo-Pacific; usually in shallow turbid areas on silty sand. 5 rows of scales above lateral line; lateral-line scales 53–55; pectoral fins reach beyond a line connecting origins of dorsal and pelvic fins.
They are easily distinguished by having a short triangular upper jaw and a very long slender lower jaw; the caudal fin is forked, the lower lobe longer than upper. Halfbeaks live at or near the surface and may leap clear of the sea and skip like needlefishes; two offshore species are able to glide on outstretched pectoral fins like flyingfishes. Some feed on plant material, especially floating pieces of seagrass, and others on zooplankton and small fishes. The eggs have adhesive filaments and are generally attached to floating or benthic plants.