By Russell H. Tuttle
The 1st significant and such a lot entire synthesis of effects from ecological, naturalistic behavioral, comparative mental, and humanoid language examine on apes because the vintage paintings, the nice Apes, by means of Robert M. and Ada Yerkes in 1929. according to greater than 1,360 references from clinical journals, monographs, symposium volumes, and different public resources, the booklet encompasses a wealth of present info at the taxonomy, ecology, postural and locomotive habit, typical communications, and social habit of the apes. Topical discussions within the publication are geared up to teach the level of growth, together with the advance of recent study questions, and how our perspectives of apes have replaced as new details has turn into on hand because 1929.
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Additional resources for Apes of the World: Their Social Behavior, Communication, Mentality and Ecology
45-46) included certain "behavioural peculiarities" to justify the specific status of Pan paniscus. These were based on Coolidge (1933), who had relied upon the description of Chim by Yerkes and Learned (1925). Wisely, Hill did not repeat the statement that "Whereas Panzee in both facial appearance and manner suggested the Irish type, Chim similarly suggested the Negro" (Yerkes and Learned, 1925, p. 24; Coolidge, 1933, p. 49). It smartly illustrates the state of the art and social prejudice then.
Johanson's (1974) extensive odontometric study on bonobos and common chimpanzees revealed that Pan paniscus have smaller teeth than Pan troglodytes. The two species can also be distinguished by shortness of the mandible in Pan paniscus (Cramer, 1977). In the dentition of bonobos, only the permanent canine teeth are sexually dimorphic. The amount of canine dimorphism is less in bonobos than in common chimpanzees (Fenart and Deblock, 1973; Johanson, 1974; Almquist, 1974; Kinzey, 1984). Indeed in many cranial and postcranial features, Pan paniscus exhibits less sexual dimorphism than Pan troglodytes does (Fenart and Deblock, 1973; Cramer, 1977; Zihlman and Cramer, 1978; Susman, 1979; Laitman and Heimbuch, 1984).
108) that there is only one living species, perhaps composed of two insular subspecies: Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus of Borneo and Pongo pygmaeus abelii of Sumatra (Jones, 1969; Bemmel, 1969; Groves, 1971b; MacKinnon, 1974, 1975; Rijksen, 1978, Roher-Ertl, 1982, 1983, 1984). g. Groves, 1971b) that Sumatran orangutans are larger than Bornean orangutans, according to MacKinnon (1975) and Eckhardt (1975a) there is probably no major difference between the body weights of the two subspecies. Reliable weights for large samples of wild orangutans are not available.