By Lewis Stevens
The biology of birds is varied and regularly differs considerably from that of alternative vertebrates. Many birds migrate or fly at excessive altitudes, whereas egg-laying and feather construction locations excessive calls for on nutrient uptake and garage. This e-book is the single accomplished and up to date survey of avian biochemistry and molecular biology to be had. It emphasises the similarities and transformations among birds and different vertebrates, targeting new advancements. the 1st part bargains with protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, its hormonal regulate and the variations that take place in birds. the second one covers the avian genome, gene expression, and avian immunology. development and embryological improvement also are mentioned. Avian Biochemistry and Molecular Biology might be of curiosity to all these engaged on birds, specifically postgraduate scholars and researchers.
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Additional resources for Avian Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
The functions of these proteins are not yet understood. Besides these Gla proteins, others have been detected in lower concentrations in other tissues. The role of vitamin K as a cofactor is that it provides the energy necessary for the carboxylation step. Vitamin K exists in three forms, the quinone (K), the dihydroquinone (KH2) and the epoxide (KO), as illustrated in Fig. S. The carboxylation reaction is linked to the conversion of KH2 to KO. Two reduction steps are then necessary to recycle the Vitamin K2 Vitamin K3 Fig.
When a wider range of potential metabolites were tested for their ability to maintain ATP levels in domestic fowl erythrocytes, the most effective were found to be inosine, guanosine and glutamine. Mathew et al (1993) suggest that the low rate of glucose transport in avian erythrocytes is compensated by a high capacity to transport and metabolise nucleosides and glutamine. The glutamine concentration in domestic fowl serum is « 250 fiM, and the combined inosine and guanosine ~ 9/iM. Inosine is the metabolic precursor of uric acid, and its metabolism might be part of a salvage pathway in which the carbohydrate moiety is further utilised leaving the purine ring to form uric acid.
The dietary requirement for nicotinamide is also related to the requirement for tryptophan. Dietary tryptophan can be converted with varying efficiencies into nicotinamide, thus dietary tryptophan spares the requirement for nicotinamide. In the domestic fowl and grain-eating birds, there is rarely an excess of tryptophan. Pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) is required for the interconversion of tryptophan to nicotinamide, and so the requirements for nicotinamide are moderated by the amounts of pyridoxal and of tryptophan residues present in the diet.