BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS OF by WS Atkins Consultants And members of the NSC

By WS Atkins Consultants And members of the NSC

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The most popular version of two equation models is the k-ε model, where ε is the rate at which turbulent energy is dissipated by the action of viscosity on the smallest eddies (Launder and Spalding [1974]. A modelled transport equation for ε is solved and then L is determined 3/2 as Cµ k /ε where Cµ is a constant. The second most widely used type of two equation model is the k-ω model, where ω is a frequency of the large eddies (Wilcox [1998]). A modelled 1/2 transport equation for ω is solved and L is then determined as k /ω.

Cell faces of adjacent blocks match, or arbitrary (general attachment without matching cell faces). • Chimera grid: Structured mesh blocks are placed freely in the domain to fit the geometrical boundaries and to satisfy resolution requirements. Blocks may overlap, and instead of attachments at block boundaries information between different blocks is transferred in the overlapping region. • Unstructured grid: Meshes are allowed to be assembled cell by cell freely without considering continuity of mesh lines.

2. Turbulence modelling Most flows of practical engineering interest are turbulent, and the turbulent mixing of the flow then usually dominates the behaviour of the fluid. The turbulent nature of the flow plays a crucial part in the determination of many relevant engineering parameters, such as frictional drag, flow separation, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, thickness of boundary layers, extent of secondary flows, and spreading of jets and wakes. The turbulent states which can be encountered across the whole range of industrially relevant flows are rich, complex and varied.

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